Schickard (1623)       

Martin (US)        not mentioned

Martin (Dtsch)

 

 

Wilhelm Schickard (1592 - 1635) studied theology and oriental languages. In 1613 he became a Lutheran minister, 1619 professor of Hebrew at the university of Tübingen. In 1631 he was appointed professor of astronomy. His research included astronomy, mathematics and surveying. He invented many machines like one to calculate astronomical dates; he also made significant advances in mapmaking.

Long before Pascal and Leibniz, Schickard invented a calculating machine in 1623, which was used by Kepler.

There is no machine built by Schickard left and the plans and details were not discovered until 1957. A number of replicas have been build since then.

The machine incorporates a set of "Napier's bones" (on the cylinders) and a mechanism to add the partial products (with a carry mechanism).

 

 

principle  combination of Napier's bones and a add/sub engine

replica

capacity   
production years  1623 - 
machines built   few
features   
 
   
   
   
    
 for bigger and more pictures, click on   the picture 

                                                                                                                        source: F.Haeghens

 

 

 

Pascal (1642)

Martin (US), pages 33 - 38

Martin (Dtsch), pages 35 - 41

 

 

 

 

 

 

Blaise Pascal (1623 - 1662)  is one of the most important French philosophers.

Pascal was a child prodigy, who was educated by his father. He was a mathematical genius. At 16 he wrote the Essai pour les coniques which was published in 1640. In 1642 he invented a calculating machine to help his father, who served as Royal Tax Commissioner at Rouen. Pascal is often credited with the discovery of the mathematical theory of probability, and he also made serious contributions to number theory and geometry.

 

Between 1642 and 1652 around 50 Pascaline's were manufactured, 8 or 9 survived:

1 or 2 are in the IBM collection;  4 at the Musée des arts et métiers   (CNAM, Paris); 2 at the Musee du Ranquet (Clermont-Ferrand) and one at the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon.

 

For a more detailed biography of Pascal see the web-site of the St. Andrews University or from the book A Short Account of the History of Mathematics by W. W. Rouse Ball  at the web site of the Trinity College, Dublin

 

Additional resources:

 

Yves Serra's site with details of the pascaline

The History of Computing Project: http://www.thocp.net/hardware/pascaline.htm

 

 

 

Pascaline

 

principle  

replica

capacity   8 x  x 8
production years  1642 - 
machines built   ca. 50
features   add and subtract
 
   
   
   
    
 for bigger and more pictures, click on   the picture 

                                                                                                                        source: V.Monnier

 

 

 

Sam Morland (1666)

Martin (US), page 38

Martin (Dtsch), page 41

 

"Morland constructed an adding machine that can at best be regarded as an improvement of Pascal's machine and also a multiplication machine based upon the principle of Napier's calculating rods. "

 

principle  

capacity   
production years  1666 - ???
machines built
features  add and subtract
 no tenth carriage
   
   
   
   
 for bigger and more pictures, click on   the picture 
by permission of the Museum of the History of Science, University of Oxford  inventory no: 55139

 

 

"Samuel Morland's calculator (1664). The machine consists of a gilt brass plate carrying 55 numbered silver circles and 17 numbered silvered brass circles. It is housed in a wooden case with a crystal lid. It seems that the design was inspired by Napier's rods. The rods are inscribed on brass circles and these can be turned, via a crank, to show the products through a series of window-like displays"

from: N.Baaijens

 

principle  based on Napier's rods

capacity   
production years  
machines built   
features   
 
   
   
   
    
 for bigger and more pictures, click on   the picture 
      source: N.Baaijens

 

 

principle  

for bigger and more pictures, click on   the picture 

capacity   
production years  
machines built   
features   
 
   
   
   
    
 for bigger and more pictures, click on   the picture 
      source: library of congress LC-USZ62-110470

 

 

 

 

Leibniz (1672 - 1712)

Martin (US), page 38 - 42

Martin (Dtsch), page 41 - 45

 

Indignum enim est excellentiurn virorum horas servili calculandi labore perire, 

qui machina adhibita vilissimo cuique secure transcribi posset.

 

It is beneath the dignity of excellent men to waste their time in calculation when any

peasant could do the work just as accurately with the aid of a machine.

 

-Leibniz

 

 

"In 1672 the famous mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz began to occupy himself with the design and construction of a machine for the four fundamental operations of arithmetic."

 

Literature: 

K.Badur und W.Rottstedt: Erfahrungen beim Nachbau einer Leibniz-Rechenmaschine: Und sie rechnet doch richtig, in: Historische Bürowelt, 74 (2006), pages 13 - 16 (IFHB)

rechts klicken zum kopieren, links zum öffnen (1.8 MB)

 

 

principle  stepped drum

capacity   8 x 1 x 16
production years  1672
machines built   3
features   
 
   
   
   
    
 for bigger and more pictures, click on   the picture 

                   

             

                                                                                      

 

Grillet (1675)

Martin (US), page 42

Martin (Dtsch), page 46

 

"This is an adding machine similar to Pascal’s machine. It has three rows of seven dials, the rows lying below one another. Numbers are set on the dial by turning them with a stylus. The machine possesses no control mechanism, thus it has no need of any device, such as a crank, wheel, or band to power it. It is described in the Journal des Scavuns, (1678)."

 

Literature: J.Marguin, Histoire des instruments et machines à calculer, Paris, page 75

 

principle  Napier drums plus disk adder

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture  

capacity 

 

input  
prod. years  1675
mach. built  
features  
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Musée des arts et métiers   (CNAM, Paris), photo:W,Szrek

 

 

 

Perrault (1699)

Abaque Rhabdologique

tooth rack adder from C.Perrault, similar to Landin and Comptator

Literature:  The Abaque Rhabdologique of Claude Perrault

 

note: the description and pictures are from:

Machines et inventions approuvées par l'Académie Royale des Sciences, depuis son établissement jusqu'à présent ; avec leur Description. Dessinées et publiées du consentement de l'Académie, par M. Gallon. Depuis 1666 jusqu'en 1754.

published in Paris, 1735 and 1765

 

principle  tooth rack adder

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture  

capacity 

 

input  
prod. years  1700
mach. built  
features  
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Musée des arts et métiers   (CNAM, Paris)

 

 

 

 

Caze (1720)

Additionneur de Caze

This device is directly derived from abacus. Little balls are replaced by moving rods which are shifted up to add or down to subtract with the help of a stylus. Carry is not automated: this is not a machine.

Literature: J.Marguin, Histoire des instruments et machines à calculer, Paris, page 27

 

principle  

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture

capacity 

 

input  
prod. years  1720
mach. built  
features  
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Musée des arts et métiers   (CNAM, Paris), photo:W,Szrek

 

 

 

 

Lepine (1725)

Martin (US), page 43

Martin (Dtsch), page 48

 

"This is an adding machine without keys, essentially a simplified version of Pascal's machine."

note: the description and pictures are from:

Machines et inventions approuvées par l'Académie Royale des Sciences, depuis son établissement jusqu'à présent ; avec leur Description. Dessinées et publiées du consentement de l'Académie, par M. Gallon. Depuis 1666 jusqu'en 1754.

published in Paris, 1735 and 1765

 

principle  

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

 

input  
prod. years  1725
mach. built  
features  
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: W.Szrek

 

 

 

Leupold (1727)

Martin (US), page 43

Martin (Dtsch), page 48

 

 

"In the Theatrum Arithmetico Geometricum, Jacob Leupold published the drawing of a calculating machine shown in figure 21, but it was never constructed."

In the literature is the statement, that the above words of Martin are wrong, i.e. at least one Leupold machine was constructed. However, if so, this machine didn't survive.

see also Braun.

 

Literature:

R.Paland: Die Leupold-Maschine, Historische Bürowelt 8, page 14-15 (1985) , IFHB

E.Anthes: Die zylindrischen Rechenmaschinen von Leupold bis Herzstark, Historische Bürowelt 22, page 16-21 (1988) , IFHB

 

 

principle  ratchet (geared wheel)

capacity   
production years  ca. 1727
machines built   1 (?)
features   
 
   
   
   
    
 for bigger and more pictures, click on   the picture 

                                                                                                                        source: Theatrum Arithmetico Geometricum

 

 

 

Braun (1727)

 

Anton Braun (1686 - 1728) is associated with two calculation machines:

- a pin wheel machine finished 1727 with similarities with the Poleni machine. This machine today is in Vienna.

- a ratchet based machine almost identical to the Leupold machine, finished 1736, i.e. after Braun's death. The inscription "Braun invenit, Vayringae fecit" is today interpreted in a way, that Braun designed the machine and Phillippe Vayringe (1684 - 1746) actually constructed it. The machine is in the Deutsches Museum, Munich.

  

Literature:

E.Anthes: Zum 300. Geburtstag von Anton Braun, Historische Bürowelt 18, page 23-27 (1987) , IFHB

E.Anthes: Die zylindrischen Rechenmaschinen von Leupold bis Herzstark, Historische Bürowelt 22, page 16-21 (1988) , IFHB

 

principle  pin wheel

for bigger and more pictures, click on   the picture 

capacity 

 7 x 1 x 11

input  key
prod. years  1727
mach. built  1
features  
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Techn.Museum Wien; photo: W.Szrek

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

principle  ratchet (geared wheel)

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

 

input  key
prod. years  1736
mach. built  1
features  
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Deutsches Museum, München; photo: W.Szrek

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hillerin de Boistissandeau (1730)

Martin (US), page 45

Martin (Dtsch), page 48

 

"This is an adding machine, without key setting, similar in type to that produced by Pascal. The friction generated during the use of this machine was so great that it could not be used in practice. The inventor attempted to improve it twice, but without success."

note: the description and pictures are from:

Machines et inventions approuvées par l'Académie Royale des Sciences, depuis son établissement jusqu'à présent ; avec leur Description. Dessinées et publiées du consentement de l'Académie, par M. Gallon. Depuis 1666 jusqu'en 1754.

published in Paris, 1735 and 1765

 

principle  

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

 

input  
prod. years  1730
mach. built  
features  
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source:  W.Szrek

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gersten (1735)

Martin (US), page 45

Martin (Dtsch), page 48

 

 

"In 1735, C. L. Gersten, mathematics professor in Giessen, submitted to the Royal Society in London an adding and subtracting machine with setting slides that had six places in the setting mechanism and seven places in the result mechanism and that also had a tens-carry mechanism. A model of the machine can be found in the Calculating Machine Museum of the firm Grimme, Natalis and Company in Braunschweig."

The only known machine in Darmstadt was lost 1943 during World-War II. Under the direction of F.Trinks from Grimme, Natalis & Company, a replica was build in 1920 for the company's own museum of historical calculation machines. This replica is now the only known Gersten machine. (now in the Landesmuseum Braunschweig)

R. Paland from the Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum describes the background and technical details of the Gersten machine in "Historische Bürowelt, No.13, pages 15-16, April 1986" (IFHB).

rechts klicken zum kopieren, links zum öffnen Gersten

 

principle  

capacity   6 x x 7
production years  1735
machines built   1 (?)
features   add and subtract
 
   
   
   
    
 for bigger and more pictures, click on   the picture 

                                                                                                                        source: IFHB

 

 

 

Jakobson (1770) (Jacobson)

Hebreer Jewna Jakobson, watchmaker and mechanic, Nieswiez (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Russia,  Poland, Soviet Union, Belarus, in chronological order)

 

History of Computers and Computing: The Mechanical Calculating Machine of Jewna Jacobson

 

principle  disk adder

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture  

capacity 

 

input  
prod. years  1770
mach. built  
features  
dimensions  34 x 22 x 4 cm
weight  
known s/n  
 
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, St.Petersburg, Coll. No ML-00469

 

 

 

 

Hahn (1774)

Martin (US), page 45 - 51

Martin (Dtsch), page 49 - 55

 

 

"The Parson Phillip Matthäus Hahn was born on 25 November 1739, at Scharnhausen. He was not only a parson but an eminent clockmaker and maker of astronomical instruments as well. He also undertook, from 1770 in Kornwestheim and from 1781 in Echterdingen, the manufacture of calculating machines. According to the present status of research in calculating machines, he was the first to design a truly usable calculating machine for all four arithmetic operations and to manufacture a number of models, several of which have been preserved and are still in usable condition."

"It has not been established how many copies of this machine were produced. According to Engelmann there are four in Stuttgart, there is one in the Deutsches Museum in Munich (which also has two copies by his brother-in-law, Johann Christopher Schuster), one is owned by the Duke of Urach, one is in the Technische Hochschule in Charlottenburg (likewise by Schuster). Since Hahn’s two sons in Stuttgart and his brother-in-law Schuster in Uffenheim and Ansbach manufactured calculating machines after Hahn’s death (Schuster, in fact, up to 1820). it is likely that an appreciable quantity were produced having various numbers of decimal places."

 

see also: E.Anthes, Die zylindrischen Rechenmaschinen von Leupold bis Herzstark, Historische Bürowelt, Ausgabe 22, page 16ff, 7/1988 (IFHB)

 

principle  stepped drum

capacity   11 x 11 x 11
production years  1770 - 1777
machines built   5 (?)
features

  add and multiply

 (subtract/divide by complement)

 
   
   
   
    
 for bigger and more pictures, click on   the picture 

                                                                                source: Württembergisches Landesmuseum Stuttgart (Frankenstein/Zwietasch)

                                                                                                                      

 

Multiplication wheel

principle  Napier's bones

capacity   8
production years  around 1780
machines built   
features

  

 
   
   
   
    
 for bigger and more pictures, click on   the picture 

                                                                                source: Württembergisches Landesmuseum Stuttgart  

 

 

 

Schuster (1792)

Johann Christoph Schuster,  brother-in-law of Hahn

Literature: 

Bernhard Korte: Die Rechenmaschine von Johann Christoph Schuster 1820/22. Patrimonia 203, KulturStiftung der Länder und Arithmeum, Bonn 2004

Bernhard Korte: The Mechanical Calculating Machine of Johann Christoph Schuster 1820/22. Patrimonia 203, KulturStiftung der Länder und Arithmeum, Bonn 2004.

Description and pictures of all known Hahn and Schuster calculators

 

principle  stepped drum

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture  

capacity 

 12

input  key
prod. years  1792
mach. built  
features  
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
 
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Deutsches Museum, München; photo: W.Szrek

 

 

 

 

principle  stepped drum

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture  

capacity 

 9

input  
prod. years  1820
mach. built  
features  
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
 
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Deutsches Museum, München; photo: W.Szrek

 

 

 

 

Mahon (1775)

Martin (US), page 51

Martin (Dtsch), page 55

 

"Lord Mahon, Earl of Stanhope, designed two machines, one for addition and subtraction and the other one for multiplication and division. His constructions are also reported to exhibit the drums with teeth of uneven length (stepped drums), which were employed by Leibniz and Hahn."

 

principle  ???

capacity   ???
production years  1775 - ???
machines built   ???
features

  add and subtract

 
   
   
   
    
 for bigger and more pictures, click on   the picture 
     

by permission of the Museum of the History of Science,

University of Oxford inventory no: 39261

                                                                                                                        

                                                                                                                      

 

 

 

Müller (1783)

Martin (US), page 51-52

Martin (Dtsch), page 55-56

 

"Johann Helfreich Müller, a captain in the engineers and county surveyor, designed a calculating machine, which he had built by a clockmaker from Giessen. It is very similar to Hahn’s machine, but Hahn’s setting rods, which were adjustable in height and had to be handled very carefully, were replaced by rotatable disks that bore the digits 0 to 9. A Müller machine may be found in the museum in Darmstadt."

Literature:

E.Anthes: Die zylindrischen Rechenmaschinen von Leupold bis Herzstark, Historische Bürowelt 22, page 16-21 (1988) , IFHB

rechts klicken zum kopieren, links zum öffnen W.Lange: technical description of the Müller machine (1981, in German)

 

principle  stepped drum

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

 

input  
prod. years  1783
mach. built  
features  
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
 
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: LM Darmstadt, Foto: E.Anthes

 

 

 

 

 

 

Auch (1790)

Martin (US), page 52

Martin (Dtsch), page 56

 

 

"Jacob Auch, one of Hahn's coliaborators, constructed a machine that can be seen in the Physical Institute of the Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe. It was rectangular in form and is reported to have been suitable for adding, multiplying, subtracting, and dividing ."

note: the machine is now located in the Württembergisches Landesmuseum Stuttgart.

 

principle  ???

capacity   8
production years  1790
machines built   
features

  

 
   
   
   
    
 for bigger and more pictures, click on   the picture 

                                                                                source: Württembergisches Landesmuseum Stuttgart (Frankenstein/Zwietasch)

 

 

 

Stern (1814)

Martin (US), page 53

Martin (Dtsch), page 57

 

"The clockmaker Abraham Stern of Warsaw constructed a machine in which it was only necessary to set up the amount to be manipulated and then to start a clockwork mechanism. In 1817 he made a second machine that served mainly for extracting square roots. Later he consolidated the two machines into one, but it never had any real influence on further developments."

 

Literature:

rechts klicken zum kopieren, links zum öffnen   Max Detlefsen: Polnische Rechenmaschinenerfinder des 19. Jahrhunderts; Wissenschaft und Fortschritt, 26 (1976), pages 86 - 90

 

 

 

Painting by Antoni Blanck. The partly shown machine is probably an early model for the calculation of the four fundamental rules of arithmetic and not the universal machine from Stern.

 

H. Winnicka: Zapomniany wynalazca, PZWS Warszawa 1962

 

source: Science Museum, London UK; cat.no. 1927-1012 (presented to museum by Mr J A Turck)

 

 

 

last updated: 05-Jun-12