Torchi (1834)

 

"The young LUIGI TORCHI (pronounce torki) was a carpenter who, so far as I can understand, had only been to primery school.

In 1834 he obtained a gold medal for a calculator he had created from pieces of wood and steel wire. It took him three years to build the first machine. No mention of his birth. So far as I can understand, his machine did three operations (sums, subtractions and multiplications).

It was particularly adapted for products with a common factor. It was built to multiply numbers of 3 digits with 4 digits. The near 66 millions products that could be obtained would have represented at least 44 five-hundred page volumes.

Carlino was the first to report the potential advantages of this machines and various scientists tried to convince the vice king to finance its improvement. This is reported in a letter dated 1835 written by Giuseppe Belli and sent to the mathematician Gabrio Piola.

In March 1840 the vice king authorized the purchase of of a metal model of the Torchi machine capable of products of three per four digits for a price of 1 000 Lire."

 

summary by Christian Barral

 

 

 

Literature:

 

Annali Universali di Statistica, Milano, 1836

 

P.Broglia, L.Massio: Il Calcolo Alla Specola Di Brera

 

principle  

capacity 

 

input  
prod. years  1834
mach. built  
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

                                                                                        source: La Fama. Giornale di scienze, lettere, arti, industria e teatri' / V.Monnier

 

 

 

 

Roth (1841)

Martin (US), pages 59 - 60

Martin (Dtsch), pages 63 - 64

 

 

 

"Dr. Didier Roth, Paris, designed an adding and subtracting machine with a stylus setting mechanism - similar to Pascal’s machine but materially improved."

 

 

Literature and links:

 

Valéry Monnier: Les machines du Dr.Roth (English version)

 

 

principle  disk calculator

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

capacity 

 2, 8 or 9

input  stylus
prod. years  1841
mach. built  
features  subtraction via complement numbers; also version for English currency
dimensions  35 x 6 x 1.5 cm
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
source: private collection, France

 

 

 

Description (in German): 

Bericht des Hrn. Theodor Olivier über die Rechenmaschinen des Hrn. Dr. Roth in Paris.

aus dem Bulletin de la Société d'Encouragement, Sept. 1843, S. 411

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. Roth also designed a machine that externally resembles Hahn's machine and possesses gears with a variable number of teeth (pinwheel).

 

principle  pin wheel

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture

capacity   ?????
production years  ?????
machines built   ?????
features   
 
   
   
   
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      Exhibit on display at Musée des arts et métiers CNAM, Paris. 60 rue Reaumur 75003 Paris

 

 

 

 

Marston (1842)

Martin (US), page 60

Martin (Dtsch), page 64

 

"No details are known about this machine that was patented in England."

rechts klicken zum kopieren, links zum öffnen   British patent 9235 from 1842

principle  disk adder

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

 

input  stylus
prod. years  1842
mach. built  
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Darek Lipski

 

 

 

Hatfield (1844)

table of interest, patented May 6, 1844

principle  

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

 

input  
prod. years  1844
mach. built  
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: mcon1614

 

 

 

Staffel (1845)

Martin (US), page 60

Martin (Dtsch), page 65

 

 

Literature:

rechts klicken zum kopieren, links zum öffnen   Max Detlefsen: Polnische Rechenmaschinenerfinder des 19. Jahrhunderts; Wissenschaft und Fortschritt, 26 (1976), pages 86 - 90

rechts klicken zum kopieren, links zum öffnen   description of Staffels machine in "report of a French commission about the exhibition in London 1851", page 11 (in French)

        rechts klicken zum kopieren, links zum öffnen   English translation (done by Brian and Pat Stone)

        source: V.Monnier

 

 

This is a seven-place adding machine made by I. A. Staffel, a Pole.

The machine is the property of the Muzeum Techniki, Warsaw Poland.

principle  ?????

capacity   7
production years  1842
machines built   ?????
features   
 
   
   
   
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
       source: W.Szrek

 

 

Staffel also constructed a full 4-specie (plus square-root) calculating machine, not mentioned by Martin.

At the 2. Greifswalder Symposium zur Entwicklung der Rechentechnik, 12. - 14. September 2003, Timo Leipälä gave a talk about "The life and works of W. T. Odhner". He covers some aspects of the development of this Staffel machine:

rechts klicken zum kopieren, links zum öffnen   The life and works of W. T. Odhner, excerpt (with permission of the author)

 

principle  pinwheel ?

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture

capacity   7 x 7 x 13
production years  1845
machines built   
features   
dimensions  46 x 23 x 10 cm
   
   
   
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Science Museum, London UK

                                                                                                                       

 

Trinks in his book (Trinks F.: Geschichtliche Daten aus der Entwicklung der Rechenmaschine von Pascal bis zur Nova-Brunsviga, Braunschweiger GNC Monatsschrift, 1926, p. 249-276) mentions an adding machine as a third Staffel development:

principle  ???

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity   7
production years  
machines built   
features   2 species machine
 
   
   
   
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 
source: Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum, photo: I. Simon

 

 

Arithmaurel (1849)

Martin (US), pages 61 - 62

Martin (Dtsch), pages 65 - 66

 

 

"This device was made by Maurel and Jayet. The machine is especially well suited for multiplication and division but is also capable of performing additions and subtractions. The operation is very simple. The whole setting mechanism and the result windows are shown in figure 31."

 

Valéry Monnier: L'Arithmaurel de Maurel & Jayet

rechts klicken zum kopieren, links zum öffnen    Erhard Anthes: Arithmaurel: Staffelwalzenmaschine von Maurel und Jayet, 1849

 

principle  stepped drum

capacity 

 8 x 4 x 8

input  bars and butterfly knobs
prod. years  1849
mach. built  few
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

                                                                                                                       source: Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum, photo: I. Simon

 

 

 

 

Hill (1857)

Martin (US), page 63

Martin (Dtsch), page 67

 

"Hill’s machine, as illustrated in figure 33, shows considerably more similarity with our modern keyboard adding machines than either Parmelee’s or Schilt’s device, yet it never advanced beyond the experimental stage. The model illustrated may be found in the National Museum in Washington. The individual digit wheels have the digits 0 to 9 inscribed around them seven times. These digit wheels are moved by a gear which, in turn, is driven around by the action of depressing a key on the keyboard. There are no overthrow locks. The tens-carry mechanism is similar to that of Pascal’s machine."

 

principle  rocker arms

capacity 

 

input  keyboard
production years  1857
machines built  
features  
known s/n  
 
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

                                                                                                                       

 

 

Winter Calculating Machine (1859)

inventor: C.Winter, US patent #23 637

 

principle  column adder

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture

capacity 

 

input  keys
prod. years  1859
mach. built  
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

                                                                                            © 2004 by Auction Team Breker, Koeln/ Germany

 

 

 

Filipowski (1860)

Herschell Filipowski's Calculating Machine for Multiplication and Division, composed of a total of fifty-six wooden calculating rods, each rod with printed paper alphabet letter to crown and printed paper cover with ten columns of figures (each with nine rows).

principle  table

capacity 

 

input  
prod. years  
mach. built  
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Dominic Winter Auctioneers

 

 

 

Fowler Adder (1863)

 

Manufactured by the Fowler Adding Machine Company, New York. Patented by George B. Fowler July 14, 1863. Also marketed under the name "The Universal Adding Machine".

 

principle  slide bar-type adder

capacity 

 8 x 8

input  stylus
prod. years  1863
mach. built  
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

                                                                                                                       source: Oddbits

 

 

Webb (1868)

Martin (US), page 63

Martin (Dtsch), page 67

 

"Designed by C. H. Webb, it consists of two rotable circular disks, one for the numbers up to a hundred, the other one for thousands. The apparatus has automatic tens-carry."

 

Literature and links:

The Webb Adder in "American Artifacts"

Webb's Adder and Ribbon Adder in "History of Computers and Computing, Calculating Tools, ....."

 

principle  circular disks

capacity 

 3 x x 4 (up to 4.999)

input  stylus
production years  1868 - ????
machines built  
features  
known s/n  
 
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

                                                                                                                       source: W.Szrek

 

 

 

Nestler & Roesler

Vienna, Austria     (Fa. Soenneckens Schreibwarenfabrik)

 

it is not clear if Nestler & Roesler was a distributor for Webb or if they produced the adder with or without license.

principle  circular disks

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture  

capacity 

 up to 4.999

input  stylus
prod. years  
mach. built  
features
dimensions  16 x 11 x 1 cm
weight  400 g
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: B.Surquin

 

 

Ribbon Adder

French patent from 1893   source: V.Monnier

principle  cont. ribbons with digits

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

 8 x x 8

input  stylus
prod. years  1893
mach. built  
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  133
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: © Peter K. Frei

 

 

 

Addist (1869)

manufacturer: R.H.Walker, New York, USA

 

principle  cardboard adder

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture

capacity 

 4 x 4 (w/o tc)

input  stylus
prod. years  1869
mach. built  
features
dimensions  13 x 9 cm
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

                                                                                                                       source: javadogcafe

 

 

Groesbeck (1870)

Martin (US), page 358

Martin (Dtsch), page 383

 

 

"This is a small adding machine along the lines of Dr. Roth’s machines (figure 30). It has six places in both adding and subtracting viewing windows. During the seventies, the machine was manufactured by Ziegler and McCudry and distributed in Philadelphia. However, it was never widely sold and production has long since ceased."

 

principle  

capacity 

 6 (also 5)

input  stylus
production years  1870
machines built  
features  
known s/n  
 
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

 

 

 

Petersson Calculator (1873)

 

manufacturer: A.J.Petersson, Oslo, Norway

 

Literature:

E.Anthes: Die zylindrischen Rechenmaschinen von Leupold bis Herzstark, Historische Bürowelt 22, page 16-21 (1988) , IFHB

E.Anthes: Die zylindrische Rechenmaschine von A.J.Petersson, Historische Bürowelt 31, page 17-18 (1991) , IFHB

D.Bölter: Christel Hamann, Paul Haack, Axel Jacob Petersson (2007)

 

principle  central stepped drum

capacity 

 6 /w/o cr) x 1 x 14, 

 also 5 x 1 x 12 and 6 x 1 x 12

input  sliders
prod. years  1873
mach. built  few
features
dimensions  diam. 9.5, height 19 cm
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

                                                                                    source: ©Tekniska museet, Stockholm

 

 

Baldwin (1875)

Martin (US), page 71 - 75

Martin (Dtsch), pages 75 - 80

 

 

source: Monroe Calc. Company

 

"Frank Stephen Baldwin was born on 10 April 1838 in New Hartford. About 1870 he saw the first stepped drum machine and it caught his interest. He decided to build a machine with only one cylinder instead of nine drums. A patent application received at the patent office in Washington on 5 October 1872, which contains exact details and drawings of Baldwin’s machine, specifically of the model that appeared on the market in 1875 that included the gear with the variable number of teeth. Under the date of 8 September 1873, an improvement on the first model was added to the patent."

"Since Odhner’s efforts date back only to 1874, the year he made his first model, it seems now definitely proved that Baldwin was the first to employ, in practice, the gear with the variable number of teeth in a calculating machine. It may be assumed that Odhner reinvented this device at a later date. In any case we have no proof whatsoever that Odhner imitated the Baldwin machine, which, as is widely known, the Americans often claim."

 

An Interview with Mr. Baldwin

source: Monroe Calc. Company
 

 

Recording Lumber Measurer

automatically measurs and records the board feet of  lumber and takes four different calculations

principle  ?

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

 

input  
prod. years  patent: 138 310, April 29, 1873
mach. built  
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Thomas A. Russo

 

 

 

adding machine (Arithmometer)

principle  ?

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture

capacity 

 6

input  
prod. years  patent: 153 522, July 28, 1874
mach. built  
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Pook & Pook, Inc., photographer Kyle Pook

 

 

 

pin wheel machine

Cris Vande Velde trip report from the Smithsonian Institution

principle  pin wheel

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture

capacity 

 6 x 8 x 13

input  
prod. years  patent: Oct 5, 1872
mach. built  
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Monroe Calc. Company

 

 

 

10 key adding machine

principle  

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture

capacity 

 

input  
prod. years  1905
mach. built  
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Monroe Calc. Company

 

 

Grant (1877)

Martin (US), page 76 - 77

Martin (Dtsch), pages 80 - 82

 

 

"This machine was constructed by George B. Grant as early as 1870, but was not publicized until 1877. Additional publications concerning this machine are likely to appear in Brooklyn in the near future.

An upper cylinder is turned by means of a crank and drives a small shaft mounted underneath. A slide on the cylinder, which may be set in eight different positions, carries eight digit rings that may be set for eight or fewer decimal places. With each turn of the crank, the numbers set up in the rings are added to the value set in the ten numeral wheels of the lower shaft."

"The machine illustrated in figure 51 also originates from the same inventor. In front there arc five setting slots with setting levers protruding from them; each slot has two rows of additive and subtractive setting numbers printed adjacent to it. Movement of the setting lever forward or backward moves the racks visible in the drawing. When the crank is turned, the whole carriage is moved forward, and the setting racks mesh with the gears and move them, together with the appropriate numeral wheels. When the carriage is returned, the connection between racks and gears is broken and a successive tens-carry takes place. Zero setting also occurs by rotation of the crank. "

 

principle  

capacity 

 

input  
prod. years  1877
mach. built  
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

 

 

 

Diakov (Diakoff, Diakow, Djakow) (1878)

 

similar to Webb Ribbon Adder and Bassett Adder

principle  ribbon adder

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture

capacity 

 10 x x 10

input  stylus
prod. years  1878
mach. built  
features  2 species
dimensions  33 x 31 x 3 cm
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
       source: permission granted

 

 

 

Burkhardt Arithmometer (1878)

Martin (US), page 78 - 82

Martin (Dtsch), page 82 - 87 & 400 - 401

 

"In I876 C. Dietzschold, an engineer in the town of Glashütte, set out to build a multiplication machine. He encountered difficulties, however, and asked for help from one of his schoolmates, Arthur Burkhardt, another engineer who was then serving his time in the army. Burkhardt came to Glashütte in 1878, shortly after Dietzschold had supplied one of his machines to the Royal Prussian Statistical Office. The statistical office found that the machine did not operate to their full satisfaction. A year later Burkhardt replaced this machine with two others constructed according to the stepped drum system (Thomas-Colmar) and thus laid the foundation for the calculating machine industry in Germany. Soon afterward Professor Dr. Reuleaux confirmed that Burkhardt's product excelled the French one in many ways. A number of machines were produced for government authorities, insurance companies, and the like, but the demand for such machines was still so insignificant that Burkhardt had to turn to the manufacture of other articles and, in fact, had to leave Glashütte for Braunschweig (during which time he was active in an entirely different line). He later returned to Glashütte and again devoted his time to the manufacture of calculating machines, which were becoming popular in commercial firms, manufacturing enterprises, and banks. Burkhardt is generally regarded as the founder of the calculating machine industry in Germany, and in the course of years he managed to keep improving his product so that, even today, it is still very popular and meets with increasing sales. Burkhardt died on 21 July 1918.

The "Erste Glashütter Rechenmaschinenfabrik von Arthur Burkhardt in Glashütte" merged, in 1920, with the Glashütter Rechenmaschinenfabrik, Saxonia, also in Glashütte, so that nowadays the Saxonia machine is manufactured by the same firm. The name of the new firm is Vereinigte Glashütter Rechenmaschinenfabriken, Tachometer- und feinmechanische Werkstatt, Glashütte, Sachsen."

On Aug. 28, 1929, the company went out of business.

 

Burkhardt "A"

principle  stepped drum

capacity 

  6 x   7 x 12, 8 x 9 x 16, 

10 x 11 x 20

input  sliders
production years  ca. 1880 - 1910
machines built  ca. 2.500
features  
known s/n  36 to 2.471
 
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

                                                                                                                       source: W.Szrek

 

 

 

Burkhardt "E"

principle  stepped drum

capacity 

 10 x   9 x 16, 10 x  7 x 13,

 10 x 11 x 20,   8 x  7 x 13

input  sliders
production years  ca. 1920 - 1926
machines built  
features  
known s/n  9.409, 9.731
 
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

                                                                                                                       source: R.Rehbein

 

 

 

Burkhardt "H"

principle  stepped drum

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

  6 x   7 x 12, 10 x 11 x 20

input  sliders
production years  from 1905
machines built  
features  
known s/n  7.325, 7.775
 
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

 

 

 

Harts Mercantile Computing Machine (1878)

 

inventor: William Hart, US patent #199 289, Jan 15, 1878

 

Literature and links:

rechts klicken zum kopieren, links zum öffnen    US patent #199 289 Improvement in calculators 

rechts klicken zum kopieren, links zum öffnen    Peggy Aldrich Kidwell: American Adders: Circles and Bands, ETCetera pages 3 - 6, #31, June 1995

 

principle  disk adder

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

 

input  stylus
prod. years  1878
mach. built  
features
dimensions  12.4 cm diameter
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

                                                                                                                       source: D.Amidon

 

 

 

Hellström (1879)

J.F.Hellström, Nykoping (Sweden); patent 10/7 1879

rechts klicken zum kopieren, links zum öffnen how to use the Hellström adder   (source: K.Badur)

principle  adder

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture

capacity 

 up to 99.999

input  
prod. years  1879
mach. built  
features
dimensions  15,5 cm diam., 6,5 cm height
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: auktionsverket.se

 

 

 

Tchebyshev (1882)

Martin (US), page 83 - 85

Martin (Dtsch), page 88 - 91

 

"This is a combined adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing machine designed by the Russian mathematician Tschebicheff. Only one example of the machine was built, in Paris, and it may be found in the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers. The machine does not use any springs."

 

Literature and links:

Mechanisms by Tchebyshev  (with movie)

 

pictures show the first model of the adding machine from the History Museum of St. Petersburg, a second model is in CNAM, Paris

principle  

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture  

capacity 

 

input  
prod. years  1882
mach. built  
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Andrew Butko (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Арифмометр.jpg)

 

 

 

Layton (1883)

Martin (US), page 87

Martin (Dtsch), page 91

 

"From 1883 to 1886 Layton’s Arithmometer was manufactured and sold by Charles and Edwin Layton on Farrington Road in London. This was the first English stepped drum machine. Later Tate, a sales agent for the machine, improved it. It was sold under the name Tate from 1907 until 1914. "

 

principle  stepped drum

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture  

capacity   various
input  sliders
prod. years

 1883 - 1886 Layton

 1907 - 1914 Tate

mach. built  
features  
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  1.222
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
source: Judd

 

                                                                                                                       

 

Genaille-Lucas (1883)

further development of Napier's bones, direct display of the result, no manuell adding necessary

 

Literature and links:

rechts klicken zum kopieren, links zum öffnen   Stephan Weiss: Die Multiplizierstäbe von Genaille und Lucas

 

Les Réglettes Financières

principle  

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture

capacity   
input  
prod. years

 1883

mach. built  
features  
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
source: Valéry Monnier

 

 

 

Spalding (1884)

Martin (US), page 87 - 88

Martin (Dtsch), page 92

 

"This is a single-column adding machine with nine slides, situated in one row, for setting up the individual digits. Instead of the customary counting gears, this machine has mounted on its surface two numeral dials, each with a pointer. The large dial on the left (figure 62) is for the numbers 1 to 99; the hundred is automatically transferred to the smaller dial o n the right. 

The machine was never put into production and remained unknown in practice."

 

principle  

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture  

capacity   ????
production years

 1884

machines built   ?????
features   
 
   
   
   
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

 

 

 

 

Edmondson (1885)

Martin (US), page 89

Martin (Dtsch), page 93 - 94

 

 

"In this machine the multiplicand and divisor are set with the aid of the slides shown in figure 63. The result mechanism and revolution counter are situated upon a circular disc in the center. This arrangement has the advantage that a division that does not end without remainder may be continued for any selected number of places, whereas the stepped drum machine or the pinwheel machine only permit division to be carried on over a limited number of places. The machine is provided with a zero-setting device with which some, or all of the windows may be set to zero. 

The machine was manufactured by Blakey, Emmot. and Company in Halifax."

 

principle  stepped drum

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

 8 x 20, variable split between

result and counter register

input  sliders
prod. years  1885
mach. built  
features  
dimensions  48 x 41 x 15 cm
weight  20 kg
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
source: O.Mundy

 

 

 

 

Comptometer (1885)

Martin (US), page 89 - 95

Martin (Dtsch), page 94 - 99 & 401

 

"Dorr E. Felt was employed as a mechanic in Chicago in 1884 when he was twenty-two years old. He spent his free time on experiments making a calculating machine. In 1885 his first machine, which admittedly was rather primitive, was completed. It is illustrated in figure 64, and since it was built into an old macaroni box. it received the name macaroni box model. This model is still in existence today. In November 1887 the firm Felt and Tarrant was founded. It was registered in January 1889. and since that time the firm has been manufacturing Comptometer calculating machines under the personal management of the inventor."

 

Literature and links:

Jay M. Goldman has a very nice collection of Comptometer on his web page.

Brooke W. Boering maintains the Comptometer home page. Here you find everything you want to know about the Comptometer.

see also Bell Punch Comptometer

 

 drawings and advertising

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture

La Nature (April 1896) source: Valery Monnier

 

 

Wood case

principle  rocker arm

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

 8, 10 or 12

input  full keyboard
prod. years  1887 - 1903
mach. built  ca. 6.500
features  also models for British currency
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  61, 71, 3.676
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
source: S.Roube

 

 

 

Comptograph

principle  rocker arm

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

 various

input  full keyboard
prod. years  patent 1889
mach. built  
features  integrated printer
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
source: Thomas A. Russo

 

 

 

model A

principle  rocker arm

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture  

capacity 

 8, 10 or 12

input  full keyboard
prod. years  1904 - 1906
mach. built  ca. 2-3.000
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  15.000 and higher
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

 

 

 

model F

principle  rocker arm

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

 8, 10 or 12

input  full keyboard
prod. years  from 1915
mach. built  
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  100,000 - ?
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

 

 

 

model H

principle  rocker arm

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture

capacity 

 8, 10 or 12

input  full keyboard
prod. years  from 1920
mach. built  
features  
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  ca. 200.000 and higher
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
source: M.Meissner

 

 

 

model J

principle  rocker arm

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture

capacity 

 8, 10 or 12

input  full keyboard
prod. years  from 1926
mach. built  
features  also models for British currency
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  ca. 245.000 and higher
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
source: HJ.Denker

                                                                                    

 

 

model ST  (Super Totalizer)

principle  rocker arm

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

 8, 10 or 12

input  full keyboard
prod. years  from 1930
mach. built  
features  sub-total and grand-total
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  J316.821 S1.131
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
source: H.van Noort

 

 

 

 

Selling (1886)

Martin (US), page 96 - 97

Martin (Dtsch), page 100 - 101

 

 

"Professor Dr. E. Selling of Würzburg designed a calculating machine in which the tiresome turning of the crank, and also the jerky tens-carry, was successfully avoided by employment of the device known as the Nuremberg shears (also known as a stork bill).

The machine consists of two separate mechanisms that are brought into joint action during the operation. The two parts are:

I . The Nuremberg shears with toothed racks and keyboard for setting the multiplicand.

2 . The gears and numeral wheels. all mounted upon a common shaft and adapted to receive the longitudinal movement of the racks and convert it into a rotating movement. The numeral wheels are connected with one another by so-called planetary gears for the purpose of tens-carry. Thus a malfunction due to spring obstructions is rendered impossible.

The actual calculating occurs by opening and closing the Nuremberg shears by means of a hand ring, the magnitude of such movement being determined by the multiplier."

 

principle  Nuremberg shears

capacity 

 6 (w/o cr) x 6 (w tc) x 12

input  full keyboard
prod. years  1886
mach. built  
features
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  20
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

                                                                                                                        source: Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum, photo: I. Simon

 

 

 

Watson (1886)

adding machine; inventor: E.W.Watson, McLean, NY (USA)

rechts klicken zum kopieren, links zum öffnen US patent US 334 064

 

principle  

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

 

input  stylus
prod. years  1886
mach. built  
features  
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: typebar

 

 

 

Büttner (1888)

Martin (US), page 97 - 98

Martin (Dtsch), page 102 - 103

 

 

"Designer: Otto Büttner, Kaulbachstr. 18, Dresden, Sales agency: Wilhelm Brückner, Dresden.

In appearance the machine resembles the contemporary stepped drum machines."

 

this is a pin wheel machine.

 

 

principle  pin wheel

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture  

capacity 

 various

input  thumb wheel
prod. years  1888
mach. built  
features  
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  93
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   
      source: Deutsches Museum, München; photo: W.Szrek

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bollée (1888)

Martin (US), page 98 - 103

Martin (Dtsch), page 103 - 109

 

 

 

"All calculating machines described so far have implemented multiplication by continued addition and division by continued subtraction. Leon Bollée, born 1 April 1870, constructed in the course of three months (from February until April 1888) a calculating machine in which the multiplication table was mechanically represented for the first time. In other words, he created the multiplication body that we find today in the Millionaire machine, in the Moon-Hopkins machine, and in the Kuhrt machine, although the various manufacturers designed it in slightly different forms."

A very nice movie and animation about the Bollée machine can be found on this web site of the CNAM Musée des arts et métiers (Quicktime required, click on the word VIDEO in the right, lower corner)

 

principle  multiplication body

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture

capacity   various
prod. years

 1888 - 1892 (?)

mach. built   few
features   
 
   
   
   
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

                                                                                                                      

 

 

 

Arithmographe de Bollée (1895)

 

This instrument combines slide adder mechanically connected with a series of overlapping multiplication rods. Partial results (of multiplication) are not given in form of digits, like on Napier’s bones, but by the positions of adding wings (coulisses d’addition).

 

principle  slide adder

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture

capacity   
prod. years

 1895

mach. built  
features   
 
   
   
   
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arithmographe Troncet (1890)

Martin (US)     not mentioned in Martin

Martin (Dtsch)

 

 

 

designer: L.Troncet, manufacturer: P.Larousse, Paris, France

 

 

 

principle  sliders

capacity 

 7 x x 7

input  pen
production years  ca. 1890
machines built   ???
features  addition and subtraction
known s/n  
 
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

 

 

 

 

 

 

Troncet totalisateur

 

principle  

capacity 

 

input  pen
production years  ca. 1895
machines built   
features  
known s/n  
 
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cordingley (1890)

 

Cordingley's Computometer Patent Adding Machine, manufactured by W.G.Cordingley & Co., London

 

principle  

capacity 

 

input  stylus
prod. years  1890 - 1910
mach. built  
features  English currency
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  1 072
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

                                                                                                                         source: John Homefish

 

 

 

 

 

 

Centigraph (1891)

small adder, constructed by Arthur E. Shattuck, San Francisco; patented June 9, 1891.

Bob Otnes, Palo Alto, California
Vortrag, gehalten beim 2. Greifswalder Symposium zur Entwicklung der Rechentechnik 12. - 14. September 2003, erschienen in Girbardt/Schmidt 9-2003
published also in Rechnerlexikon

 

principle  ???

capacity   ???
production years

 1891 - ?

machines built   ???
features   
 
   
   
   
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

                                                                                                                       source: Jim Lynard

 

 

 

 

Landin (1891)

 

inventor: P.J.Landin, US patent #482 312 from 1891

"grandfather" of the Rapid Computer and Comptator.

 Peggy Aldrich Kidwell :  "Yours for Improvement'-The Adding  Machines of Chicago, 1884-1930" in IEEE Annals of the History of  Computing Juli - Sept. 2001, pp. 3 - 21 :

  «[38] ... The history of Landin Computer and Rapid Computer companies  remain obscure. As yet, I know of no surviving examples that are  marked as produced by the Landin Computer Company. »

 

principle  chain adder

for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture 

capacity 

 7 x x 7

input  stylus
prod. years  from 1891
mach. built  
features  
dimensions  
weight  
known s/n  
    
for bigger and more pictures, click on the picture   

                                                                                                                       source: W.Szrek

 

 

     

 

important copyright note:

© 2003-2011 Herbert Schneemann and Walter Szrek. 

All the pictures, articles and any other material are the copyright of the mentioned source. 

Please do not copy or reprint without a written permission.

 

last updated: 26-Nov-13